Abstracts

Revisiting Parameters for Treating Hypertension Key point: New guidelines have lower thresholds for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Citation: Whelton PK, Carey RM, Aronow WS, et al. 2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/ NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines. Hypertension. [Epub ahead of print November 13, 2017] The 2017 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guidelines provide guidance for the prevention, detection, evaluation, and management of hypertensionRead More
GLENN HARNETT, MD Innovative Rapid Tests Show Promise in Influenza Key point: Novel DIAs and rapid NAATs had markedly higher sensitivities for influenza A and B in both children and adults than did traditional RIDTs, with equally high specificities. Citation: Merckx J, Wali R, Schiller I et al. Diagnostic accuracy of novel and traditional rapid tests for influenza infection compared with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2017;167(6):394-409. This meta-analysis of 162 studies summarized and compared accuracy of traditional rapid influenza diagnostic testsRead More
Brain Study Suggests a Link Between CTE and Football—Even Among Youths Key point: A high proportion of deceased players of American football showed pathological evidence of chronic traumatic encephalopathy, suggesting that CTE may be related to prior participation in football. Citation: Mez J, Daneshvar DH, Kiernan PT, et al. Clinicopathological evaluation of chronic traumatic encephalopathy in players of American football. JAMA. 2017;318(4):360–370. This widely referenced JAMA study presents a convenience sample of 202 deceased players of American football from a brain bank established to study the neuropathological sequelae of repetitive traumaticRead More
Validating a Quantitative EEG-Based Brain Function Index Key point: A novel EEG-based point of care, handheld, and noninvasive head injury assessment device, utilizing an index based on EEG measures reflective of concussion, was demonstrated to provide a quantitative index of brain function impairment in mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Citation: Hanley D, Prichep LS, Badjatia N, et al. A brain electrical activity (EEG) based biomarker of functional impairment in traumatic head injury: a multisite validation trial. J Neurotrauma. [Epub ahead of print June 9, 2017] There is currently no goldRead More
Finding New Pathways that Protect Head Injury Patients Key point: Using an EEG-based biomarker in adult patients has potential benefit. Citation: Hanley D, Prichep LS, Bazarian J, et al. Emergency department triage of traumatic head injury using a brain electrical activity biomarker: a multisite prospective observational validation trial. Acad Emerg Med. 2017;24(5):617-627. Prior studies estimate that traumatic head injury (TBI) accounts for over 2.5 million ED visits annually in the U.S., also revealing that ED visits for TBI have increased 29% from 2006 to 2010—a time when overall ED visitsRead More
Tracking Antibiotic Prescriptions for Nonbacterial Acute URI Key point: Patients were more likely to receive prescriptions from mid- or late-career physicians and from those with higher daily patient volumes. Citation: Silverman M, et al. Antibiotic prescribing for nonbacterial acute respiratory infections in elderly persons. Ann Intern Med. [Epub ahead of print May 9, 2017] This retrospective analysis of linked administrative health care data was drawn from 8,990 primary care physicians and 185,014 patients who presented with a nonbacterial acute upper respiratory infection (AURI). The study was designed to determine theRead More
New Data Measure Risks with Oral Corticosteroids Key point: Remember—all medications have risks! Citation: Waljee AK, Rogers MA, Lin P, et al. Short term use of oral corticosteroids and related harms among adults in the United States: population based cohort study. BMJ. 2017;357:j1415. This cohort study looks at patients with short-term steroid use (<30 days) and potential complications at 30 and 90 days out. Endpoints included fracture, sepsis, and blood clot. This study included 1.5 million patients 18-64 years of age. Over 1/3 used steroids in a 3-year period. TheRead More
Consider Vitamin D Supplementation for Patients Prone to URIs Key point: Vitamin D supplementation was both safe and protective against acute respiratory tract infection. Citation: Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, Hooper RL, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017;356:i6583. An ounce of prevention would definitely be a good idea when it comes to upper respiratory infection. With the currently limited treatments for the common cold, a chance to prevent them could only benefit patients. This systematic reviewRead More